英文摘要: |
In the late nineteenth century, stimulated by the demand for modern military technology, mathematics research and education in China developed rapidly, resulting in the emergence of the first generation of professional mathematicians. This marks the starting point for the professionalization of mathematics in China, a process which this paper sets out to analyze. The author first provides a brief survey of the status of Chinese mathematicians prior to 1860. Then, the paper analyzes the social and political context of mathematics, focusing on the improvement of the civil service examination system. Finally, the paper studies the development of mathematics education in the late nineteenth century, leading to the conclusion that mathematics and Chinese mathematicians were professionalized in three major ways: (1) some mathematicians could earn a stable livelihood from their mathematical competence; (2) the social position of mathematicians improved; and (3) the social status of the specialty of mathematics was enhanced. |