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科研成果

研究科学历史,探求创新规律

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中文题目: 持续不间断地推进科研体制创新――德国成为世界科技强国之路
英文题目: Uninterrupted System Innovation —Road to Germany’s Scientific and Technological Power
作 者: 方在庆    
刊物名称: 中国科学院院刊
发表年度: 2018
卷:
期: 5
页码: 502-508
中文摘要: 德国的科技强国之路并不平坦,在此过程中有许多因素发挥了积极作用。其中,不间断的体制创新起到了 至关重要的作用。德国科学从创立之初,一直受惠于体制创新。差不多每隔百年,德国的科研体制都会发生根本性的变革。其间,1810年柏林大学的建立,1887年帝国物理技术研究所的成立,1911年威廉皇帝学会的建立以及二战后作为威廉皇帝学会后继者的马普学会的扩张,其他三大“大学之外的研究机构”(弗劳思霍夫学会、亥姆霍兹学会和莱布尼兹学会)各司其职,以及20世纪末以来开展的“卓越战略”,都是标志性的事件。除天时地利外,德国科学家和科学政策制定者的忧患意识扮演了极为重要的角色。当处于落后地位时,虚心向比自己发达的国家学习;而当处于领先地位时,又未雨绸缪,克服内外压力,精益求精从不满足,这才使得德国的科研体制永葆活力,长盛不衰。
英文摘要: Many factors have played a role on Germany’s road to a powerful science and technology. Among them, the well supported and constantly changing scientific research system has played a crucial role. German science has benefitted from institutional innovation since its inception. Nearly every 100 years, Germany’s scientific research system undergoes major changes. These include the establishment of the University of Berlin in 1810, the establishment of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) in 1911, the expansion of the Max Planck Society as the successor to the KWG after WWII., as well as the establishment of three big “non-university research institutions”—the Fraunhofer Society, the Helmholtz Society, and the Leibniz Society—and the “Excellence Strategy” in this century. All of these are milestone events. In addition, German scientists and science-policy makers play an extremely important role. When behind the forefront of research, they humbly learn from other countries that are more advanced; when they are in a leading position, they take precautions, strive for excellence, and constantly overcome internal and external pressures in order to maintain their advantages. Always striving for excellence, the German scientific research system will remain ever dynamic.

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