Title: From the Lakes to the Ponds——Changes of Irrigation Works in Southeast China in Song Dynasty
Author: Xie Zhi fei    
Jounal: 古今农业
YEAR: 2020
No.: 2
Page: 45-58
Abstract: In the Song Dynasty, as the agricultural area of Southeast China was transferred from the plains to the hills and mountains, and the irrigation works were also changed –the construction sites changed from rivers to streams, and the waters to rage facilities changed from lakes to ponds. This change had a profound impact. The large-scale irrigation works based on rivers and lakes cost too many labors and funds. What’s worse, the farmland continuously occupied the lakes. In contrast, the irrigation works characterized by streams and ponds developed rapidly in Hilly Region of Southeast China. Ponds were small irrigation works. The stream flowing down the hill side or valley was blocked by a weir or a dam, forming a pond. The water in the pond flowed through the ditch to irrigate the farmland. People also dug ponds on flat ground to store water. The irrigation area of a pond was limited, but the number of ponds increased rapidly. Ponds were suitable for the fragmented farmland in Hilly Region of Southeast China, and they promoted the development of farmland in the highlands.